Hlsc 730-discussion 1, reply 2 | HLSC 730 – Counterterrorism and Counterintelligence Strategies | Liberty University

TEXTBOOK: Prunckun, H. (2019). Counterintelligence theory and practice (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Inc. ISBN: 9781786606884.

Ronczkowski, M. R. (2018). Terrorism and organized hate crime. (4th ed.). Boca Raton FL: Taylor & Francis (CRC Press). ISBN: 9781138703469.

The thread must be a minimum of 200-250 words. MINIMUM OF TWO SOURCES BESIDES THE TEXTBOOK. Must cite at least 2 sources in addition to the Bible.


HLSC 730 Discussion Post One 

Intelligence Quadrangle: Understanding the concept of an Intelligence Quadrangle requires a thorough grasp of the interdependent nature of American intelligence agencies (Prunckun, 2019). Federal agencies like the FBI, CIA, and NSA, operational have different objectives and goals, however, acquiring intelligence or viable information innately links them (Prunckun, 2019). For example, Barnea (2019) discusses formalized sharing of big data between the American federal law enforcement intelligence community, citing that covert operative reports need multiple lenses to optimize effectiveness. Barnea (2019) emphasizes how information recovered from a DEA agency regarding drug smuggling across the southwest border could affect eastern European transnational organized crime syndicates being investigated by the FBI. Ultimately contending that the intelligence community, especially in a widespread program like America, requires operating within an interdependent nature (Prunckun, 2019).

Anatomy of Counterintelligence: Similar to the intelligence quadrangle, the anatomy of counterintelligence is interdependent, however, two primary fields of study exist, counterintelligence and counterespionage (Prunchun, 2019). Counterintelligence, described by Prunckun (2019), is the utilization of all tools, abilities, and informational assets to deter or detect potential security threats, making it a security-based function but limited in overt actions. Beitler (2019) investigated historical examples of counterintelligence, displaying how America, through covert missions, attempted to acquire intelligence into levels of many Caribbean nation’s loyalties to Spain. Counterespionage, on the other hand, consists of efforts to dismantle, disable, or disavow an adversary’s counterintelligence network (Prunchun, 2019). An opposing nature occurs between the two, counterintelligence and counterespionage, however, they are undoubtedly interconnected, existing to compete with and challenge each other (Prunchun, 2019). For example, in the Spanish-American war cited by Beitler (2019), efforts were made by Spanish intelligence operatives, although rudimentary, to defeat American inquiries into the loyalty of Caribbean nations, cumulating into the modern definition of counterespionage.

Taxonomy & Typology: Prunckun (2019) articulates the taxonomy of counterintelligence into two basic forms, offensive and defensive, attempting to simplify and streamline this incredibly complex field. Prunckun (2019) concedes the fact that others, like the U.S. Marine Corps, do not share this view, instead pushing four-prong taxonomy viewpoints with characteristics like operations, investigations, collecting, and analysis. O’Connor (2017) supports this notion of a limited classification of taxonomy in counterintelligence, arguing that an overcontrolling approach could prevent imperative information from reaching its more effective area. In terms of typology, Prunckun (2019) illustrates five sectors, national security, military, law enforcement, business, and private documenting the evident caveat that all five overlap extensively. Although Prunckun (2019) asserts these five overlapping sectors define counterintelligence typology, the offensive and defensive overviewing mentality remains as a broad sweeping generalization to streamline information to the proper channels.

Grounded Theory: Prunckun (2019) explains that the root of grounded theory amongst scholars is simplistic, logical, and popular among qualitative researchers, creating themes to evaluate ideas more specifically. Randle (2022) investigated UFO encounters researching sightings, first-hand perspectives, and military documentation determining, through a grounded theory approach, that currently developed perspectives on the topic are inept. Randle (2022) attempted to prove that documentation showed that the Roswell UFO incident, occurring during the 1940s in New Mexico, was countering to the populous belief. Randle (2022) examined every possible article of information from a new grounded theory lens, attaching more speculation to the actual incident, military reports, and first-hand perspectives, cumulating into a scholarly work that defeated many predecessors’ accounts.

            In closing, a biblical perspective regarding counterintelligence and counterespionage seems fitting, as America must meet its adversaries on their level to ensure the preservation of our values “But if there is harm, then you shall pay life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burn for burn, wound for wound, stripe for stripe” (English Standard Version, 2001/2016 Exodus 21:23-25).  


Barnea, A. (2019). Big Data and Counterintelligence in Western Countries. International 

Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence. 32(3).

https://doi.org/10.1080/08850607.2019.1605804Links to an external site.

Beitler, S. (2019). Counterintelligence and Combating Terrorism. The Military Intelligence 

Community. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429312823-12Links to an external site.

English Standard Version. (2016). Bible hub. Retrieved from https://biblehub.comLinks to an external site. (Original

work published 2001).

O’Connor, C. (2017). Cyber Intelligence: Concept, Actors, and Implications for Security. ANU 

Research Publications. http://hdl.handle.net/1885/236354Links to an external site.

Prunckun, H. (2019). Counter-Intelligence; Theory and Practice. Rowman & Littlefield 

Publishing. Lanham, Maryland.  

Randle, K. (2022). A Grounded Theory Update on the Roswell UFO Incident. Journal of 

Scientific Exploration. 36(2). https://philpapers.org/rec/RANAGT-3Links to an external site.

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