Author, Journal (Peer-Reviewed), and Permalink or Working Link to Access Article   Article Title and Year Published   Research Questions/ Hypothesis, and Purpose/Aim of Study   Design (Quantitative, Qualitative, or other)   Setting/Sample   Methods: Intervention/ Instruments   Analysis/Data Collection   Outcomes/Key Findings   Recommendations   Explanation of How the Article Supports Your Proposed EBP Practice Project Proposal Alotaibi, Y. K. & Federico, F. Saudi Medical Journal 38(12):1173-1180. doi: 10.15537/smj.2017.12.20631 10.15537/smj.2017.12.20631 The impact of health information technology on patient safety 2017 The purpose of the study was to review current scientific evidence on the effects of various health information technologies on enhancing patient safety. The study is a systematic review of existing evidence from previous scientific research on the different types of technologies and their effects on patient safety. The authors sampled previous studies based on set criteria: systematic reviews, meta-analysis and randomized clinical trials. The interventions used include ascertaining the study designs meta-analysis and randomized clinical trials. The authors used published and non-published studies from January 2017. The authors collected data from the various studies on different components of health information technology using certain key words like electronic medical records and Clinical Decision Support among others. The outcomes from the study indicates that health information technology improves patient safety as it reduced medication errors, mitigates adverse drug reactions and improves compliance to set guidelines in practice. The authors recommend the need for healthcare organizations to choose a technology that will them better as some technologies have limited evidence about their efficacy in improving patient safety outcomes. The article supports the proposed EBP project proposal as it shows the need to integrate health information technology in healthcare to mitigate medication errors. The article offers an in-depth review of the existing evidence that supports implementing better interventions to reduce and prevent medication administration errors. Trimble AN, Bishop B, Rampe N. American journal of health-system pharmacy: AJHP: official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. 2017;74:70-75. DOI: 10.2146/ajhp150726 Medication errors associated with transition from insulin pens to insulin vials 2017 The purpose of the paper was to show the root-cause of insulin administration errors that occurred after a facility’s transition from insulin pens to vials. The article describes the process improvement initiatives in the facility to prevent future errors. The study design is qualitative as it is an observational study. The setting was a 450-bed community hospital. The intervention was use of root-cause analysis to identify the causes of the three medication errors that occurred after the transition. The authors collected data from observing the administration of insulin to patients from using pens to insulin vials. The findings show that different factors cause medication administration errors like insufficient nursing education, non-adherence to medication administration policies and procedures, and issues related to electronic health records. The authors recommend the implementation of improvement initiatives to prevent the medication errors from occurring in the future like giving education to nurses and performance of safety rounds among other interventions. The article is essential as it provides primary research findings about the issues that cause medication administration errors. The article will enhance evidence of the EBP project implementation as it validates use of technologies to reduce and prevent medication administration errors. Härkänen, M., Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K., Murrells, T., Rafferty, A. M., & Franklin, B. D. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 15(7), 858-863. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2018.11.010 Medication administration errors and mortality: Incidents reported in England and Wales between 2007 ̶ 2016 2019 The purpose of the study was to analyze medication administration errors occurring in acute care that leads to death, identify the drug involved, and a description of the features of the medication administration errors. The study used existing reports in acute care about medication administration errors registered during the period. The setting was acute care practices or areas in England and Wales. The intervention focused on the characteristics of the medication administration errors in the facilities under review. The authors collected data from reported medication administration errors in acute care settings between 2007 and 2016. The findings suggest that a majority of errors in medication administration occur in wards and among patient aged over 75 years. The most prevalent group was omitted medicine or ingredient. The authors record the need to focus on avoidance of dose omission and administration of drugs for patient over 75 years. The article also recommends safe administration of parenteral anticoagulants and antibacterial medicines The article is essential in addressing the issue of different types of medication administration errors and where they happen. The article will offer in-depth analytical base to extract more evidence for the project. Barakat, S. & Franklin, B. D. Pharmacy (Basel), 8(3):148.  doi: 10.3390/pharmacy8030148 An Evaluation of the Impact of Barcode Patient and Medication Scanning on Nursing Workflow at a UK Teaching Hospital. 2020 The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of Barcode medication administration (BCMA) on nursing activity and workflow. The study used qualitative design as they employed observational approach. The setting was in two surgical wards at a large acute facility in London. The intervention was the implementation of BCMA in one acute ward and the other without the BCMA. The study collected data from observation for ten consecutive weekdays and another ten weekdays after the implementation of the BCMA. The article’s findings include increased workflow, patient verification and medication administration efficiencies. The authors recommend more research to determine the effect of BCMA on timelines of medication administration. The article is essential as it is a primary study on how integration of technology (BCMA) can enhance the medication process and reduce the possibility of medication administration errors. The article is important to the project as it gives more details on the need to implement health information technology in healthcare settings. Alomari, A., Sheppard-Law, S., Lewis, J. & Wilson, V. The Journal of Clinical Nursing, 29(17-18): 3403-3413. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.15374 Effectiveness of Clinical Nurses’ interventions in reducing medication errors in a pediatric ward. 2020 The aim and objective of the study were to evaluate the impacts of bundle interventions which nurses can use to reduce medication administration errors. The authors also wanted to enhance nursing practice’s perception on medication administration process. The article used a quantitative research design based on three phases of action research. The setting was a specialized pediatric medical ward. The sample included six pediatric nurses as part of the Action Research team. The project had multiple interventions like additional questions about parental involvement, quality and safety meeting each month and more time-space before nurses could end their shifts. The study collected data during all the phases of action research. The article shows that after implementing the interventions, the facility reduced medication errors by close to 60% despite an increase in patients and the number of prescribed medications The article recommends the need to have clinically based nurses to participate in action research to enable them have practice reflection, develop and implement bundle interventions and have reduced cases of medication administration errors The article is important as it demonstrates the role that action research plays in enhancing patient safety and quality of care. The article will be useful in understanding different ways to implement research to reduce medication administration errors. Devin, J., Cleary, B. J. & Cullinan, S. BMC Systematic Reviews, 9(275). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-020-01510-7 The impact of health information technology on prescribing errors in hospitals: a systematic review and behavior change technique analysis 2020 The aim of the study was to assess the impact of health information technologies to reduce prescribing errors in hospitals. The study also focused on identification of behavior change techniques to HIT implementation and lead to a reduction in these errors. The article used a qualitative design as it reviewed existing research from different journal databases. The settings were multiple as all studies were from previous research findings. The intervention is the study was the use of behavioral change techniques associated with effective models to reduce medication administration errors. The authors collected data from studies that met the selection criteria on different components of HIT like modifications of HIT. The findings show that prescribing HIT is related to a reduction in prescribing errors in different healthcare settings. The study recommends the need for effective use of behavioral change techniques to integrate HIT in prescribing to reduce medication errors. The article is important to the EBP project as it shows the need to integrate behavioral change techniques for effective implementation of health information technology to reduce and prevent medication errors. The article will be used to offer detailed evidential account of implementing better HIT and training of individual employees for effective implementation. Zadvinskis, I. M., Smith, J. G., & Yen, P. Y. JMIR medical informatics, 6(2), e38. doi: 10.2196/medinform.8734 Nurses’ experience with health information technology: Longitudinal qualitative study 2018 The aim of the study was to explore the experiences and perceptions of nurses in implementation of information technology over time in their facilities The authors used a phenomenological approach for the longitudinal qualitative study to comprehend nurses’ perceptions The sample comprised of clinical nurses who worked on a medical-surgical unit in an academic center The instrument in the study was use of time points; 3,9, and 18 months after implementing different HITs in the unit. The study’s data was compiled from the sampled nurses over the period of implementation in the medical-surgical unit. The findings demonstrate two types of factors that facilitate HIT adoption; personal and organizational level issues. Nurses changed their perceptions about HIT after implementation. The authors recommend that organizations should implement and invest in health information technologies and refine their policies to mirror nursing practice and enhance systems to focus on patient safety. The article offers more relevant and appropriate information and data on implementing HIT to reduce medication administration errors that are caused by personal and organizational issues. The article will offer more insights on personal level issues to integrate HIT in nursing practice. Naidu, M.  and Alicia, Y.L.Y.  Health, 11, 511-526. https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2019.115044 Impact of Bar-Code Medication Administration and Electronic Medication Administration Record System in Clinical Practice for an Effective Medication Administration Process 2019 The purpose of the study was to assess the use of barcode medication administration (BCMA) and electronic medication administration record (e-MAR) usage outcomes, clinical practices, policies and processes that impact nurses in their medication administration duties in their practice environment. The authors conducted an annotated literature review on the implementation of innovations to enhance patient safety. The authors conducted a review of literature and used samples and settings in those studies to understand the phenomenon under investigation. The interventions include the use of HIT, clinical practices and policies, and processes affecting nurses administering medications in their clinical setting. The article uses data from previous studies on the medication administration errors identified by the researchers. The findings show that compliance to BCMA and e-MAR improves patient safety and a significant reduction in reported errors. The incorporation also improves efficiency of the BCMA system The authors recommend the need for healthcare providers and organizations to embrace innovation as a way of reducing and preventing medication administration errors in their clinical practice. The article is important as it shows the need to embrace technology and innovations that improve care delivery and efficiency. The article will be essential in offering more data and information on how innovation can offer better solutions to clinical practice problems and enhance patient safety and outcomes. Jheeta, S. & Franklin, B. D. BMC Health Services Research, 17(547). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-017-2462-2 The impact of a hospital electronic prescribing and medication administration system on medication administration safety: an observational study. 2017 The goals of the study were to compare the prevalence and types of medication administration errors, documentation of discrepancies between ePA system and paper data. The researchers also focused on making observable changes to the medication administration process using certain interventions The authors conducted an observational qualitative study. The setting was an elderly medicine ward in an English hospital. The interventions included pre and post-ePA implementation time-points, and observation of nurses during the medication administration rounds; five days before and after implementation. The authors collected data from the observations and documented medication administration errors in 428 potential occasions for errors. The findings show that no alterations in rates of medication errors. However, the implementation encourages the occurrence of certain errors but mitigates others. The ePA implementation leads to significant increase in documentation of discrepancies. The authors recommend the need to adopt ePA as a way of mitigating certain types of medication administration errors. The article would be important to the EBP project since it contains data on different aspects of HIT that can be implemented to reduce and prevent medication administration errors. The study will enhance the project’s recommendations for better use of the outcomes. Anazi, A. A. (2021). Health Informatics Journal, 27(1), 1460458220987276. https://doi.org/10.1177/1460458220987276 Medication reconciliation process: Assessing value, adoption, and the potential of information technology from pharmacists’ perspective. 2021 The purpose of the study was to address elements linked to medication reconciliation process as part of medication administration, the hurdles, and role of information technology in healthcare. The authors also focused on the requisite functionalities to achieve optimal medication reconciliation process. The authors used a descriptive, cross-sectional study through a survey to examine opinions by pharmacists on the medication reconciliation process and the role of information technology in improving the process. The sample included 319 respondents that practiced medication reconciliation proce
ss. The interventions included the use of electronic health records (EHRs), and the use of electronic medication registration as the necessary technology instruments to implement medication reconciliation process. The authors collected data from the opinions of pharmacists and even nurses that participated in the surveys. The findings from the study emphasized the need for having well-designed medication reconciliation process through the help of information technology approaches. The authors suggest the initiation of policies to mandate sharing of data necessary in creating a compiled medication list for individual patients. The authors emphasize the importance of medication reconciliation as part of enhancing patient safety in hospitals. The article is essential as it gives a different perspective from other healthcare professionals on the importance of implementing medication reconciliation process to minimize occurrence of medication administration errors.

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