Child abuse and Maltreatment Essay – NRS-434VN Topic 2 DQ 1
Child abuse is any act or failure to act by a parent, caregiver, or other people that cause intentional harm to a child. When a child is wrongfully treated, it is considered abuse. The type of abuse commonly seen in school-age children include physical, emotional, sexual, and neglects. Physical abuse includes hitting, beating, kicking, shaking, burning, choking, biting, punching, and stabbing. Emotional abuse includes using a pattern of behavior that have negative effects on a child such as criticisms, threats, and rejections. Sexual abuse is when there are sexual advances toward or involving a child, including making a child touch an adult’s sexual organ, penetration of any kind that does not have a medical purpose, incest, rape, exposing one’s self to a child, exposing a child to pornography, masturbating in front of a child, involving a child in prostitution or exploitation, to mention but few. Neglects include failure to provide for the child’s well-being such as medical care, adequate supervision, insufficient food, and denying the child from going to school (Plumpre, 2021).
The warning signs the nurse may see in this child during physical assessment includes unexplained bruises, abrasions, black eyes, cuts, bite marks, bruises in or around genital areas, difficulty walking or standing due to genital or anal pain, unnecessary afraid of the parents or adults, demonstrating sexual knowledge beyond the age, and poor oral care with extensive dental caries. Emotionally, the child can display some behavioral problems or changes like becoming excessively clingy, acting angry or depressed, becoming less talkative, or stopping communication completely (Plumpre, 2021) Child abuse and Maltreatment Essay.
Some cultural healing practices mimic child abuse such as coning also called caogio used among Vietnamese, Cambodians, and Laotians to bring healing and balance in the realms of physical, metaphysical, and supernatural. Other forms of healing practice are moxibustion which is Asian medicinal healing, caida-de-mollera practiced in Mexico, and curandero remedy used by folk healers that entails slapping the soles of the baby’s feet and shaking the baby while holding the child in an upright position ( Waters-Tozier, 2020).
In the state of Maryland, it is required by law that all professionals including health practitioners, police officers, educators, and human service workers, who suspect child abuse or neglect must report to the local department of social services (LDSS) and child protective services (CPS) (Maryland Department of Human Services, 2023). Health facilities have their policy on how to report abuse, the nurse’s responsibility is to gather all the necessary data and follow the hospital protocol.
Factors that increase the vulnerability of a school-aged child to abuse include the health status of the child like mental retardation, autism spectrum disorder, or a child with a disability. Another factor could be a child that has initially been abused or neglected.
Plumptre, E. (2021, November 16). What is child abuse? Verywell Mind. https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-child-abuse-5207936
Maryland Department of Human Services. (2023). Reporting suspected child abuse or neglect. https://dhs.maryland.gov/child-protective-services/reporting-suspected-child-abuse-or-neglect/ Child abuse and Maltreatment Essay
Waters-Tozier, S. A. (2020). Cultural practices and values that can masquerade as child abuse … Journal of Forensic Psychology. https://www.walshmedicalmedia.com/open-access/cultural-practices-and-values-that-can-masquerade-as-child-abuse-aliterature-review-and-recommendations-for-the-forensic.pdf
Sample 2 – Child abuse and Maltreatment Essay – NRS-434VN Topic 2 DQ 1
According to Gonzalez, et al., (2019), child abuse happens when the parent, guardian, or caregiver hurts the child either emotionally, sexually, or physically. Child abuse can occur in various ways (physically, neglect, emotionally, or sexual) and at different stages during their growth and development. Children aged between one through five are at a higher risk of being silently abused. It is important to understand the types of abuse most commonly seen, warning signs, physical and emotional assessment findings, cultural variations, reporting mechanisms, nurse responsibilities, and factors that increase vulnerability in this age group.
Types of Abuse
According to Falkner (2018), physical abuse is the leading nightmare a child might encounter while growing up. This may include hitting, slapping, shaking, or other forms of physical harm. Bruises, welts, or unexplained injuries are common signs. Children in the 1-5 age group encounter emotional abuse. This may be in the form of criticism, humiliation, or threatening behavior, leading to emotional distress and behavioral changes in the child, such as being depressed, anxious, or showing regressive behaviors. Thirdly, neglect in children can be in the form of lack of supervision, inadequate food, clothing, and shelter. Children may appear undernourished, unkempt, have poor hygiene, or generally untidy. Lastly, children can be at the risk of being sexually abused. While less common in this age group, it can still occur. Signs may include sexualized behaviors, knowledge beyond their age, and genital or anal discomfort.
Warning Signs and Assessment Findings:
A child who has experienced any form of abuse can be identified by a number of visible or observable signs. To begin with, there will be physical signs. Unexplained bruises, burns, fractures, or injuries are inconsistent with the child’s developmental stage. However, the explanation as to what led to the injury is inconsistent. Secondly, their behavioral conduct over time may be different. This may include aggressiveness, withdrawal, fearfulness, regression in development, excessive compliance, or extreme anxiety (WHO, 2020). Thirdly, the fear of a particular adult, depression, low self-esteem, and mood swings a signs a nurse or any other person may observe. To add on, the child may have delayed developmental milestones. For example, a child may weigh less. Again, the child may have a lot of difficulty establishing age-appropriate relationships. Lastly, an abused child will experience frequent unexplained illnesses or chronic health issues.
However, a nurse may fail to consider some cultural variations. Cultural practices can sometimes be misidentified as child abuse, so nurses must be culturally sensitive and aware. For example, some cultures may have rituals or practices, like coining or cupping, that leave temporary marks on the child’s body (Gonzalez et al., 2019). It’s crucial to differentiate between cultural practices and actual abuse.
In the case where a child is abused and evidence is gained, a nurse should report to the authorities and necessary measures taken against the perpetrator. Reporting mechanisms vary by state, but typically, healthcare professionals are mandatory reporters of child abuse. Nurses must report suspected abuse to the appropriate authorities, usually the Child Protective Services (CPS) or a similar agency. In the State of Ohio, reports against child abuse can be made to Ohio Child Protective Services or the CPS. Nurses have a legal and ethical duty to ensure the child’s safety and well-being (WHO, 2020).
A child may be abused due to certain factors that unintentionally increase their vulnerability. To begin with, their inability to converse put them at risk. Since they are still developing their language and communication skills, children may struggle to express abuse, making them vulnerable because they can’t easily disclose what’s happening. Secondly, these children are highly dependent on their parents and caregivers, making them susceptible to abuse because they are reliant on adults for their basic needs and protection (Gonzalez, et al., 2019).
However, it is important for a nurse to identify and report child abuse. Nurses play a pivotal role in recognizing signs, reporting, and ensuring that children receive the necessary protection and support they need. Additionally, they must be culturally sensitive to avoid misidentifying cultural practices as abuse.
Falkner, A. (2018). Health assessment: Foundations for effective practice. Chapter 2: Age-Appropriate Approach to Pediatric Health Care Assessment.
Gonzalez D, Bethencourt Mirabal A, & McCall JD (2019). Child Abuse and Neglect. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459146/
World Health Organization (WHO). (2020). Child Abuse and Neglect Facts. Retrieved 5/3/20 from https://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/factsheets/en/childabusefacts.pdf
Sample 3 – Child abuse and Maltreatment Essay – NRS-434VN Topic 2 DQ 1
Child abuse and maltreatment doesn’t just exist in any particular age group. Preschool-age group includes ages three to five old. Child abuse exists with physical abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse. “Maltreatment of children, comprising various types of abuse and neglect, is a major public health challenge”(Zeanah & Humphreys, 2018, p.639). Physical abuse in preschool-age children involves hitting, slapping, shaking, and other forms of physical harm. As a nursing professional, common signs to look for are unexplained bruising, burn marks, fractures or injuries in various stages of healing. Emotional abuse can be witnessed as constant criticism, humiliation, or rejection of the child. The preschoolers may show signs of extreme shyness, aggressive behavior, or severe anxiety. Other signs might be bed-wetting, thumb-sucking, or clinging that is more extreme. Child neglect can manifest as basic needs not being met like food, clothing, and/or shelter. The children may look malnourished, or have hygiene, or inadequate development progress. Warning signs may include fear of certain people or unexplained pain or discomfort in the genital area.
Nursing professionals need to recognize warning signs and assessment findings with preschool age children with unexplained injuries or injuries inconsistent with age or the explanation by the parent or caregiver. “It is self-evident that neglected children face a multitude of risk factors known to impair normal development” (Hildyard & Wolfe, 2002, p. 682). They may see behavioral changes like withdrawal or aggression which is unlike the child. They may also decline in the progress of the child both medically or socially. The delayed developmental milestones may not be achieved. A child may have an unusual reaction to certain individuals. The nursing professionals also need to be aware of various cultural practices so they don’t identify what they observe as abuse. For example, some cultural practices use discipline methods and can be considered abuse. Nursing professionals need to be culturally sensitive while assessing for abuse- Child abuse and Maltreatment Essay.
Nurse responsibilities have a ethical and legal obligation to report the suspected child abuse to each state in the United States. They need to document their observations and any suspicions. The nursing professionals have to report the appropriate child protective services (CPS) and law enforcement. The report should remain confidential and not inform the suspected abuser. There are factors that increase vulnerability for preschool age children include dependency because the children are dependent on their caregivers which at times makes them more susceptible to the child abuse. They can’t help themselves or at times express what is happening so nursing professionals need to be observant when providing medical care to the child. The primary concern should always be the safety and well-being of the child. The nurse’s play a vital role in identifying and reporting any child abuse they observe along with giving any type of support to the caregivers.
Hildyard, K. L., & Wolfe, D. A. (2012). Child neglect: developmental issues and outcomes☆. Child abuse & neglect, 26(6-7), 679-695.
Zeanah, C. H., & Humphreys, K. L. (2018). Child abuse and neglect. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 57(9), 637-644.
Child abuse and Maltreatment Essay – NRS-434VN Topic 2 DQ 1 sample 4
Infants are vulnerable and depend on others for their care. Infants’ maltreatment is exhibited through physical abuse, neglect, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, and medical abuse (Green, 2022 p.20). Often, one of the parents is involved in the maltreatment of the infant. Infants who suffer from abuse often show signs and symptoms such as lack of adult supervision, developmental delays, unexplained abrasions, bruises, broken bones, lack of medical or dental needs, malnutrition, socially withdrawn, unexpected difficulties with sitting or walking, and frequent UTI’s among many other things (Green, 2022 p.22). Parents often delay the medical treatment of the infant and show little to no concern. This type of treatment can be caused by alcohol and other drugs.
Nurses should be culturally competent and sensitive to culture beliefs. Understanding that every culture is different is important to not misunderstand it for child abuse. Some practices can include cupping, coining, spooning, etc. Understanding that these practices often can mimic physical abuse is important to provide culturally competent patient care Child abuse and Maltreatment Essay.
The state of Texas does not accept anonymous reports of suspected child abuse or neglect. If abuse is suspected the reports must provide full name and contact information but the reporters’ name is still confidential by law (DFPS, 2023). A person reporting the abuse in good faith will be immune from civil or criminal liability (DFPS,2023). To Report abuse in the state of Texas you can call 1-800-252-5400 or Online: Texas Abuse Hotline available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. If suspected abuse the nurse should first report it to a physician. Sometimes supervisors need to be notified of the abuse too. Providing a detailed head to toe assessment and extended documentation to back up findings. Notifying law enforcement as soon as possible of suspected abuse while patient is still under our care.
One factor that can increase the risk of abuse in infants is that they are highly dependent on their parents or caregivers. They depend on them for everything. Another factor will be the lack of communication skills. Being unable to communicate places the infant at a higher risk for abuse. This will make them vulnerable and they wont be able to disclose the abuse.
Falkner, A., & Green, S. Z. (2022). Health Assessment: Foundation for Effective Practice (Second). Grand Canyon University.
Texas Department of Family and Protective Services (DFPS). DFPS. (n.d.). https://www.dfps.texas.gov/contact_us/report_abuse.asp Child abuse and Maltreatment Essay