KNOWLEDGE CHECK: NEUROLOGICAL AND MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS NURS 6501

KNOWLEDGE CHECK: NEUROLOGICAL AND MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS NURS 6501

KNOWLEDGE CHECK: NEUROLOGICAL AND MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS NURS 6501

Question 1

4 out of 4 points

Scenario 1: Gout

A 68-year-old obese male presents to the clinic with a 3-day history of fever with chills, and Lt. great toe pain that has gotten progressively worse. Patient states this is the first time that this has happened, and nothing has made it better and walking on his right foot makes it worse. He has tried acetaminophen, but it did not help. He took several ibuprofen tablets last night which did give him a bit of relief.

HPI: hypertension treated with Lisinopril/HCTZ .

SH: Denies smoking. Drinking: “a fair amount of red wine” every week. General appearance: Ill appearing male who sits with his right foot elevated.

PE:  remarkable for a temp of 100.2, pulse 106, respirations 20 and BP 158/92. Right great toe (first metatarsal phalangeal [MTP]) noticeably swollen and red. Unable to palpate to assess range of motion due to extreme pain. CBC and Complete metabolic profile revealed WBC 15,000 mm3 and uric acid 9.0 mg/dl.

Diagnoses the patient with acute gout.

Question:

Explain the pathophysiology of gout.

Selected Answer: A gout is a complex form of arthritis, that is having swollen and painful joints due to the accumulation of urate crystals in the joints. in other words, Gout is an inflammatory response to too much uric acid in the bloodstream causing hyperuricemia.

Pathophysiology; Urate crystals are formed when the body breaks down purines a naturally occurring substance in the body and found in red meat and mostly raised when high fructose sugar is ingested having hypertension and being obese.  Formation of uric acid occurs and this substance is excreted by the kidney, in this case, the kidney may have failed to eliminate the uric acid and what happens next is that the uric acid dissolves in blood and is transported in the body. When this acid reaches the joints, it forms sharp urate crystals in the joint tissues. this causes pain, swelling, and inflammation of the joint hence the symptoms that are brought in by the patient.

Gout depends on metabolic processes. Purines must first be available and then breaking down leads to the formation of way too much uric acid that the kidneys. Kidneys are then overwhelmed in excreting, and, therefore, leading to retention in the blood that leads to urate crystals forming.

in summary: Gout is caused by a defect in purine metabolism and kidney function. Uric acid is a byproduct of purine nucleotides. People with gout may have an elevated level of purine synthesis accompanied by a rise in uric acid levels.

 

Correct Answer:  

Gout is an inflammatory response to excessive quantities of uric acid in the blood and other body fluids including synovial fluid. The elevated level of uric acid lea to the formation of monosodium urate crystals in and around joints. When the uric acid levels exceed approximately 6.8 mg/dl, it crystalizes and forms an insoluble precipitate that are deposited into connective tissue through the body. When crystallization occurs in synovial fluid, it triggers Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α, which causes the release of inflammatory cytokines and interleukins. The result is an acute inflammatory response within the joint.

Gout is caused by a defect in purine metabolism and kidney function. Uric acid is a byproduct of purine nucleotides. People with gout may have an elevated level of purine synthesis accompanied by a rise in uric acid level.

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4 out of 4 points

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Scenario 1: Gout

 

A 68-year-old obese male presents to the clinic with a 3-day history of fever with chills, and Lt. great toe pain that has gotten progressively worse. Patient states this is the first time that this has happened, and nothing has made it better and walking on his right foot makes it worse. He has tried acetaminophen, but it did not help. He took several ibuprofen tablets last night which did give him a bit of relief.

 

HPI: hypertension treated with Lisinopril/HCTZ .

 

SH: Denies smoking. Drinking: “a fair amount of red wine” every week. General appearance: Ill appearing male who sits with his right foot elevated.

 

PE:  remarkable for a temp of 100.2, pulse 106, respirations 20 and BP 158/92. Right great toe (first metatarsal phalangeal [MTP]) noticeably swollen and red. Unable to palpate to assess range of motion due to extreme pain. CBC and Complete metabolic profile revealed WBC 15,000 mm3 and uric acid 9.0 mg/dl.

 

Diagnoses the patient with acute gout.

Question:

Explain why a patient with gout is more likely to develop renal calculi.

Selected Answer: Most uric acid is eliminated from the body through the kidneys. Urate is filtered at the glomerulus and undergoes reabsorption and excretion within the proximal renal tubules. In primary gout, urate excretion by the kidneys is sluggish. This may be caused by a decrease in glomerular filtration of urate or acceleration in urate reabsorption. This allows for urate crystals to be deposited in the renal tubules.
Correct Answer:  

Most uric acid is eliminated from the body through the kidneys. Urate is filtered at the glomerulus and undergoes reabsorption and excretion within the proximal renal tubules. In primary gout, urate excretion by the kidneys is sluggish. This may be caused by a decrease in glomerular filtration of urate or acceleration in urate reabsorption. This allows for urate crystals to be deposited in the renal tubules.

Response Feedback: [None Given]

4 out of 4 points

Scenario 2: Osteoporosis

A 78-year-old female was out walking her small dog when her dog suddenly tried to chase a  rabbit and made her fall. She attempted to try and break her fall by putting her hand out and she landed on her outstretched hand. She immediately felt severe pain in her right wrist and noticed her wrist looked deformed. Her neighbor saw the fall and brought the woman to the local ER for evaluation. Radiographs revealed a Colles’ fracture (distal radius with dorsal displacement of fragments) as well as radiographic evidence of osteoporosis. A closed reduction of the fracture was successful, and she was placed in a posterior splint with ace bandage wrap and instructed to see an orthopedist for follow up.

Question:

Discuss what is osteoporosis and how does it develop pathologically? 

Selected Answer: Osteoporosis is considered a metabolic bone disease. Osteoporosis, also called porous bone, is the most common bone disease in humans. Its main features include low bone mineral density, impaired structural integrity of bone, decreased bone strength, and increased risk of fractures.

The two types of osteoporosis are primary and secondary. Primary osteoporosis, the most common is hormone mediated where bone loss is accelerated by declining levels of estrogen in women and testosterone in men. Secondary osteoporosis is caused by other conditions including endocrine disorders such as hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, diabetes mellitus,  also certain medications like heparin, corticosteroids, phenytoin, barbiturates, and lithium, as well as tobacco and alcohol.

There are three major bone cells that are involved in the formation, maintenance, and reabsorption of bone. Osteoblasts are immature bone cells that under ideal circumstances allow the bone to be formed and laid down. Osteocytes are cells that are responsible for the normal maintenance, or the cycle, of bone. Osteocytes removed old bone cells which allow the osteoblasts to form new bone.

Osteoclasts are responsible for the reabsorption of bone. Hormonal influences remain important in maintaining bone health, but new research has demonstrated that genetic factors and the role of oxidative stress also contribute to the development of osteoporosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) serve as signaling molecules for osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. An imbalance between osteoblast formation and osteoclast reabsorption is the primary cause of osteoporosis.

Correct Answer:  

Osteoporosis is considered a metabolic bone disease. Osteoporosis, also called porous bone, is the most common bone disease in humans. Its main features include low bone mineral density, impaired structural integrity of bone, decreased bone strength and increased risk of fractures. The two types of osteoporosis are primary and secondary. Primary osteoporosis, the most common is hormone mediated where bone loss is accelerated by declining levels of estrogen in women and testosterone in men. Secondary osteoporosis is caused by other conditions including endocrine disorders (hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, diabetes mellitus) and certain medications such as heparin, corticosteroids, phenytoin, barbiturates, and lithium) as well as tobacco and alcohol. There are three major bone cells that are involved in the formation, maintenance, and reabsorption of bone. Osteoblasts are immature bone cells that under ideal circumstances allow bone to formed and laid down. Osteocytes are cells that are responsible for the normal maintenance, or the cycle, of bone. Osteocytes removed old bone cells which allows the osteoblasts to form new bone. Osteoclasts are responsible for reabsorption of bone. Hormonal influences remain important in maintaining bone health, but new research has demonstrated that genetic factors and the role of oxidative stress also contributes to the development of osteoporosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) serve as signaling molecules for osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. An imbalance between osteoblast formation and osteoclast reabsorption is the primary cause of osteoporosis.

Response Feedback: [None Given]

4 out of 4 points

Scenario 3: Rheumatoid Arthritis

A 48-year-old woman presents with a five-month history of generalized joint pain, stiffness, and swelling, especially in her hands. She states that these symptoms have made it difficult to grasp objects and has made caring for her grandchildren problematic. She admits to increased fatigue, but she thought it was due to her stressful job.

FH: Grandmothers had “crippling” arthritis.

PE: remarkable for bilateral ulnar deviation of her hands as well as soft, boggy proximal interphalangeal joints. The metatarsals of both of her feet also exhibited swelling and warmth.

Diagnosis: rheumatoid arthritis.

Question:

The pt. had various symptoms, explain how these factors are associated with RA and what is the difference between RA and OA? 

Selected Answer: Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory, systemic disease that is autoimmune in nature. Symptoms are mediated by antibodies against self-antigens and inflammatory cytokines, especially CD4+ T cells that promote inflammation. Multiple inflammatory cells are involved, and TNF and Interleukin-1 stimulate the synovial cells to secrete protease that damages the hyaline cartilage. The inflammatory cytokines convert the synovium into an abnormally thick layer of granulation tissue called pannus. The pannus acts like a locally invasive tumor. Pannus is the tissue responsible for the destruction of the articular cartilage. The other inflammatory mediators affect the soft tissue structures like the tendons, ligaments, and even the valves of the heart, especially the aortic valve. Long-standing inflammation causes interstitial fibrosis of the lungs which reduces pulmonary function.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is localized destruction of articular cartilage which can either be idiopathic or secondary. Secondary OA is due to a prior injury or infectious process that may affect the normal cartilage. Primary OA is very common in people >65 years of age and there is a strong correlation between obesity and the development of OA. OA is a non-inflammatory disease process

Correct Answer:  

Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory, systemic disease that is autoimmune in nature. Symptoms are mediated by antibodies against self-antigens and inflammatory cytokines, especially CD4+ T cells that promote inflammation. Multiple inflammatory cells are involved, and TNF and Interleukin-1 stimulate the synovial cells to secrete protease that damages the hyaline cartilage. The inflammatory cytokines convert the synovium into an abnormally thick layer of granulation tissue called pannus. The pannus acts like a locally invasive tumor. Pannus is the tissue responsible for destruction of the articular cartilage. The other inflammatory mediators affect the soft tissue structures like the tendons, ligaments, and even the valves of the heart, especially the aortic valve. Long standing inflammation causes interstitial fibrosis of the lungs which reduces pulmonary function. Osteoarthritis (OA) is localized destruction of articular cartilage which can either be idiopathic or secondary. Secondary OA is due to a prior injury or infectious process that may affect the normal cartilage. Primary OA is very common in people >65 years of age and there is a strong correlation between obesity and the development of OA. OA in a non-inflammatory disease process

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