KNOWLEDGE CHECK: CARDIVASCULAR AND RESPIRATORY DISORDERS NURS 6501

KNOWLEDGE CHECK: CARDIVASCULAR AND RESPIRATORY DISORDERS NURS 6501

KNOWLEDGE CHECK: CARDIVASCULAR AND RESPIRATORY DISORDERS NURS 6501

Question 1

2 out of 2 points

CC: “I have been having terrible chest and arm pain for the past 2 hours and I think I am having a heart attack.”

HPI: Mr. Hammond is a 57-year-old African American male who presents to the Emergency Department with a chief complaint of chest pain that radiates down his left arm. He states that he started having pain several hours ago and says the pain “it feels like an elephant is sitting on my chest”. He rates the pain as 8/10. Nothing has made the pain better or worse. He denies any previous episode of chest pain. Denies nausea, dyspnea, or lightheadedness. He was given 0.4 mg nitroglycerine tablet sublingual x 1 which decreased, but not stopped the pain.

Lipid panel reveals Total Cholesterol 324 mg/dl, high density lipoprotein (HDL) 31 mg/dl, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) 122 mg/dl, Triglycerides 402 mg/dl, Very Low-Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) 54 mg/dl

His diagnosis is an acute inferior wall myocardial infarction.

1 of 2 Questions:

Why is HDL considered the “good” cholesterol?

Selected Answer: HDL carries between 20-25% of the total cholesterol in plasma. It is a good cholesterol since it accumulates the excess cholesterol that exists in body cells for excretion in the liver.
Correct Answer: HDL is considered the good cholesterol because it collects excess cholesterol in the body cells and transports it to the liver where it is excreted in the body cells and transports it to the liver where it is excreted in the body. HDL carries 20-25% of total plasma cholesterol.
Response Feedback: [None Given]

3 out of 3 points

CC: “I have been having terrible chest and arm pain for the past 2 hours and I think I am having a heart attack.”

HPI: Mr. Hammond is a 57-year-old African American male who presents to the Emergency Department with a chief complaint of chest pain that radiates down his left arm. He states that he started having pain several hours ago and says the pain “it feels like an elephant is sitting on my chest”. He rates the pain as 8/10. Nothing has made the pain better or worse. He denies any previous episode of chest pain. Denies nausea, dyspnea, or lightheadedness. He was given 0.4 mg nitroglycerine tablet sublingual x 1 which decreased, but not stopped the pain.

Lipid panel reveals Total Cholesterol 324 mg/dl, high density lipoprotein (HDL) 31 mg/dl, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) 122 mg/dl, Triglycerides 402 mg/dl, Very Low-Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) 54 mg/dl

His diagnosis is an acute inferior wall myocardial infarction.

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2 of 2 Questions:

Explain the role inflammation has in the development of atherosclerosis.

Selected Answer: Mitochondrial damage caused by chronic inflammatory processes cause inflammation in the heart muscles. These processes cause an increase in the production of free radicals that activate the continuous cycle of chronic inflammation.
Correct Answer: Inflammation in the heart muscle caused by chronic inflammatory processes leads to mitochondrial damage that results in an increased free radical production that further activates the chronic inflammatory vicious cycle.
Response Feedback: [None Given]

1 out of 1 points

A 45-year-old woman with a history of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) presents to the Emergency Room (ER) with complaints of sharp retrosternal chest pain that worsens with deep breathing or lying down. She reports a 3-day history of low-grade fever, listlessness and says she feels like she had the flu. Physical exam reveals tachycardia and a pleural friction rub. She was diagnosed with acute pericarditis.

 

Question:

 

What does the Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) recognize as the result of the pleural friction rub?

Selected Answer: The pericardium tends to roughen following inflammation caused by a post-viral syndrome or an underlying autoimmune disease. The roughening is what produces a classic rub that an APRN   can hear at the left sternal border and apex of the heart.
Correct Answer: The inflammation of the pericardium, due to either the underlying autoimmune disease or a post viral syndrome, causes roughening of the pericardium. The roughening of the pericardium causes the classic “rub” which can best be heard at the apex of the heart and left sternal border.
Response Feedback: [None Given]

1 out of 1 points

A 15-year-old adolescent male comes to the clinic with his parents with a chief complaint of fever, nausea, vomiting, poorly localized abdominal pain, arthralgias, and “swollen lymph nodes”. States he has felt “lousy” for a couple weeks. The fevers have been as high as 102 F. His parents thought he had the flu and took him to an Urgent Care Center. He was given Tamiflu® and sent home. He says the Tamiflu didn’t seem to work. States had a slight sore throat a couple weeks ago and attributed it to the flu. Physical exam revealed thin young man who appears to be uncomfortable but not acutely ill. Posterior pharynx reddened and tonsils 3+ without exudate. + anterior and posterior cervical lymphadenopathy. Tachycardic and a new onset 2/6 high-pitched, crescendo-decrescendo systolic ejection murmur auscultated at the left sternal border. Rapid strep +. The patient was diagnosed with acute rheumatic heart disease (RHD).

 

Question:

 

Explain how a positive strep test has caused the patient’s symptoms.

Selected Answer: A pharyngeal infection with GABHs (Group A Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus) often leads to the development of RHD, which is an abnormal response to cell-mediated responses. The inflammatory cascade associated with this process cause exudative and proliferative lesions, and scarring in the valve tissue. Since it is the endocardium which contains valves that is primarily affected, inflammation of the endocardium results to subsequent inflammation of valves.
Correct Answer: Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) only develops after a pharyngeal infection with Group A beta hemolytic streptococcus. It is an abnormal response to humoral and cell-mediated response to M proteins on the microorganisms. The intense inflammation caused by these reactions cause proliferative and exudative lesions in connective tissue. This inflammation causes scarring of the valve tissue. The inflammation usually affects the endocardium which contains the valves. Endocardial inflammation causes swelling of leaflets in the valves.
Response Feedback: [None Given]

1 out of 1 points

The APRN sees a 74-year-old obese female patient who is 2 days post-op after undergoing left total hip replacement. The patient has had severe post op nausea and vomiting and has been unable to go to physical therapy. Her mucus membranes are dry. The patient says she feels like the skin on her left leg is too tight. Exam reveals a swollen, tense, and red colored calf. The patient has a duplex ultrasound which reveals the presence of a deep venous thrombosis (DVT).

Question:

Describe the factors that could have contributed to the development of a DVT in this patient explain how each of the factors could cause DVT.

Selected Answer: When there is injury to a blood vessel, there is platelet adherence to blood vessel walls influenced by antiplatelet substances. When platelets aggregate, they form clots. Therefore, virchow’s triad damaged the blood vessel walls. Since this patient is reportedly obese, inability to engage in physical therapy and an advanced age caused venous stasis,
Correct Answer: Virchow’s Triad caused damage to the walls of the vessels. When there is injury to the intimal layer of the vessel, antiplatelet substances such as nitric oxide and prostacyclin, along with the expression of collagen on the vessel wall, causes adherence of the platelets to the vessel wall. The platelets become activated then aggregate forming clots. Venous stasis as a result of obesity, patient’s advanced age and inability to go to physical therapy.
Response Feedback: [None Given]

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