Health care Discussion – Online Nursing Essays



The book

Biedermann, S. (2017). Introduction to healthcare informatics (2nd ed.) [E-book]. AHIMA.

Chi, C. (2021, May 13). A beginner’s guide to data flow diagrams. Blog.Hubspot…

Kettles, D. (2020, June 30). How to create a context-level data flow diagram (DFD) [Video]. YouTube.

This should be based on your facility related to implementation, upgrade, and compliance related to the EHR and information systems in place within the organization. Within the DFD illustrate the areas where digital media, informatics, health information technologies can be used to improve health care, meet safety requirements, and regulatory operations using the now required SAFER Guides, CMS promoting interoperability, and the informatics/systems development life cycle. 1. A) Create a data flow diagram related to the implementation of a new information system, digital media, or EHR. Explain and define system development life cycle. B) Create a graphical display of the process and place within the document. 2. A) Create a narrative for your DFD addressing the SAFER Guides and new CMS requirements impact on the facility. B) List and explain the CMS promoting interoperability initiatives as related to health care information systems, digital media, or EHR’s. C) Explain and define system development life cycle and how it is utilized. Minimum of One and half to two pages full single-spaced. Utilize APA formatting. Include three scholarly references; one should be your textbook. Electronic Health Records and its dynamic implementation using graphical representation methods Sandhya Avasthi, Utkarsh Srivastava, Shubhi Sharma Krishna Engineering College,Ghaziabad,India,, ABSTRACT Many hospitals currently using Electronic Health Records for improving their services and usage of such Electronic Health Records have increased tremendously. The function of an Electronic Health Record is to computerize various day to day activities of Hospital front office and such a system is user friendly simple, fast, and available at a low price. It deals with the collection of patient’s information, diagnosis details, medicines etc, earlier it was done manually. The main function of the proposed system is to register, store patient details, doctor details and retrieve these records. Keeping various files and records in system makes retrieval and manipulation easy whenever required. To manipulate these details correctly user provides input such as patient details, diagnosis details and medicine details while system output is details in dynamic or graphical format on the user screen. The data can be retrieved or fetched easily. The data is shown in tabular form in database but graphical representation of all data is shown in system’s user interface so that summary can easily be retrieved. The data are well protected or secured for personal use and makes the data processing very fast. Keywords: Medical Records, Patient Appointment, Electronic Health Records, Patient Record, Information Retrieval 1. INTRODUCTION Electronic Health Records (EHRs) have been implemented by the increasing number of hospitals all around the world in recent times. Dynamic EHR systems have various forms [1], and this term can be related to a broad and wide range of digital information systems of records used in health care clinics and hospitals. EHR systems is been represented dynamically and can be used in individual organizations, as interoperating systems in reputed and well known health care units and organizations, on a regional level, or nationwide .Health care units that use dynamic EHRs include hospitals, pharmacies, general practitioner surgeries, and other health care providers. The implementation of hospital-wide EHR systems [8], is a complex matter involving a range of organizational and technical factors including human skills and practices, organizational structure, culture, technical infrastructure, financial resources, and coordination [13]. The multiple objectives of hospital are curing, caring for patients, and educating new physicians and nurses. The project Dynamic Implementation of Records of Hospital in Graph includes registration of patients, storing their details into the system graphically, and also computerized or digital billing and fixing appointments in the reception, digital billing in the pharmacy, and labs. The software has the facility to give a unique id for every patient and stores the details of every patient and the staff automatically. Search facility has been included to know the current status of each room. Administrator can search availability of a doctor and the details of a patient using the id. The Dynamic Implementation of Records of Hospital can be entered using credentials i.e. username and password. It is accessible either by an administrator or receptionist. Only they can add data and the data is been stored into the database. The data can be retrieved easily. The interface is very user-friendly. The data is well protected for personal use and makes the processing very fast. This System is powerful, flexible, and easy to use and is designed and developed to deliver real conceivable benefits to hospitals, so that data could easily be analyzed. This System is designed for multispecialty hospitals, to cover a wide range of hospital administration and management processes. It is an integrated end-to-end Hospital Records Management System that provides relevant information across the hospital to support effective decision making for patient care, hospital administration and critical financial accounting in a consistent flow [4]. 2. Background Hospital Records Management System is a software product framed designed to enhance the quality and implementation management of hospital in the areas of clinical process analysis and activity-based costing [14]. Hospital Records Management System enables you to develop your organization or product and increases its effectiveness and quality of work [5]. Managing the key processes efficiently is critical to achieve the success of the hospital helps you manage your processes [11]. The Lack of immediate retrievals of information is very complex considering lots of data [9].The information or data is very difficult to fetch or retrieve and to find particular information like finding out about the patient’s history or any other data [6]; the user has to go through various register processes [2]. This results in inconvenience and wastage of time. The storage is another problem in such system. The information generated by various transactions takes time and efforts to be stored at right place [3].Various changes to information like patient details or immunization details of children are very difficult to make as paper work manually. Manual calculations are error prone and take a lot of time this may result in inaccurate information. For example, calculation of patient’s bill is based on various treatments. This becomes a difficult task as information about any patient is difficult to collect from various register manually. These are the various type of works that need to be done in a Hospital by the operational staff and Doctors. The activities are described below:1) Information about Patients is done by just writing the Patients name, age and gender. Whenever the Patient comes up his information is stored freshly. 2) Bills are generated by analyzing price for each facility provided to Patient on a separate sheet and at last they all are summed up. 3) Diagnosis information to patients is generally recorded on the document, which contains information about Patient. It is clipped or resolved after some time period to decrease the paper load in the office. 4) Information about various diseases. Doctors do this job by remembering various medicines on their own. All this type of work is done manually by the receptionist and other operational staff and lot of papers are needed to be handled and taken care of. The main problems with doctors is that they have to remember various medicines available for diagnosis and sometimes miss better alternatives as they can’t remember them at that time[12].The entire system mainly consists of five modules and those are admin module, user module (patient), doctor module, pharmacist module and receptionist module. 3.METHODOLOGY Hospitals generally use a manual system for the management and maintenance of critical information. The current system requires numerous paper forms, with data stores spread throughout the hospital management infrastructure. Sometimes information is incomplete or does not follow management standards. Forms are often lost while transferring between departments requiring a comprehensive auditing process to ensure that no vital information is lost. Multiple copies of the same information are kept in the hospital and may lead to inconsistencies in data in various data stores. 3.1 PROPOSED SYSTEM: The Dynamic Implementation of records of Hospital is designed for any hospital to replace their existing manual paper based system. This new system is used to control the information of patients, room availability, staff, operating room schedules and patient invoices. These services are to be provided in an efficient, cost effective manner, with the aim of reducing the time and resources currently required for such type of tasks. The user who received the file will do the operations like the embedding, decryption, and decompress in their level of hierarchy etc. The flow is shown in figure 1 and system framework is given in figure 2. Figure1. Data Flow in Modules The feasibility of the project can be analyzed in this phase and business proposal is put away with a very genuine plan for the project and some cost estimates. During system analysis of the feasibility study of the proposed system is to be carried out. This is to ensure that the proposed system is not a burden to the organization. For feasibility analysis, some self-knowledge of the major requirements for the system is essential. Three key considerations involved in the feasibility analysis are economic feasibility, technical feasibility and operational feasibility. This study is carried out to analyze the economic impact will have on the system will have on the organization. The amount of fund that the company can provide into the research and development of the system is less or limited. The expenditures must be justified. Thus the developed system as well within the budget and this was achieved because most of the technologies which were used are freely available. Only the customized products have to be purchased. This study is takes place to observe the technical feasibility, that is, the technical requirements of the system. Any technology developed must not have a high demand on the available technical resources. This will lead to high demands which are being placed on the client. The developed system must have a modest requirement, as only minimal or null changes for the implementing this system. Figure2. System Framework The impact of study is to check the level of acceptance of the system by the user. This includes the training process to the user to use the system efficiently. The user must not feel threatened by the system; therefore it must accept it as a necessity. The level of acceptance by the users exclusively depends on the methods that are trained to improve the user about the system and to make him familiar with it. His level of confidence must be raised so that he is also able to make some constructive criticism, which is accepted, as he is the final user of the system 4. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP That to be used efficiently, all computer software needs certain hardware components or the other software resources to be present on a computer. These pre-requisites are known as system requirements and are often used as a guideline as opposed to an absolute rule. Most software defines two sets of system requirements: negligible and recommended. With increasing demand for higher processing speed and resources in newer versions of software, system requirements incline to increase over time. Industry analysts suggest that this trend plays a bigger part in driving upgrades to existing computer systems than technological advancement. We have run our software using Processor Intel Dual Core i3consuming less than 1GB RAMupto80GB Hard Disk. Highly recommended set of requirements defined by any operating system or software application is the physical computer resources, also known as hardware. A hardware requirements list is often accompanied by a hardware compatibility list (HCL), especially in case of operating systems and other peripheral devices. This could be operated in Operating System such as Windows 7/XP/8/10. This is been made by using HTML, CSS, JAVASCRIPT,JSP and Mysql on localhost://phpmyadminas an interface. Software Requirements deal with defining software resource requirements and pre-requisites that need to be installed on a computer to provide optimal functioning of an application. These requirements or pre-requisites are generally not included in the software installation package and need to be installed separately before the software is installed. Sometimes for some project it might be possible that could not receive any requirements, instruction guide or documents to work with. But still there are other sources of requirements that you can consider for the requirement or information, so that y-ou can base your software or test design on these requirements. 5. RESULTS Employee Login and Detail This is the Main Employee Login Page, in which an Employee can login and perform its various operations (shown in figure 3 and 4). All employees need credentials for signing in the system. The employee such as Administrator, Receptionist, Pharmacist, and Doctor can sign in after creating their regular account. Figure 3 Login Interface Figure 4 Admin Interface This is the Employee Detail Page, in which an administrator can see the details, register doctor, Search Doctor, and can access all the Graphs such as: All users Graph, Appointments Graph, Medicine Order Graph. Appointment Graph: This is the Appointment Graph Page (shown in figure 5), in which all the appointments which were fixed are been in dynamic form both in Pie Chart and Bar Chart. A user can easily analyze by looking at the Pie chart generated. Figure5. Pie chart describing percentage of average user Register Doctor: This Page is under Administrator Panel in which admin can register new doctor, though it is the registration page to register a new doctor. A registered doctor can retrieve a patient records or any other information related to a patient treatment. Figure6. Administrator User Interface Medicine Status This is the Medicine Status Page, in which all the medicines that are in stock are shown in tabular form with Class, Drug Type, Composition, Expiry Date, Cost, View Medicine. Figure7. Medicine Information Table Medicine Order UI and Graph: This is Medicine Order Panel in which the Pharmacist can place the order and verify. This features helps in maintaining history of all ordered medicine in last few months with details like medicine ordered, time of order, personal information, doctor and quantity. The bill details can also be included that could contribute in future analysis related to medicine. This is the Medicine Order Graph, in which the medicines which are been ordered because of less in stock Figure8. Order Information Interface Patient Registration UI This is a Patient Registration panel, in which receptionist can register new patient and can fix the appointment with the respective doctor. Figure9. Registration Interface All Users Graphical Representation: This is the All Users Graph Panel, in which all the users such as Admin, Doctor, Pharmacist, Receptionist data is been shown in a graphical form or dynamically. Figure10. All user representation 6. CONCLUSION Medical records form an important part of a patient management. It is important for the doctor and medical establishment to properly maintain the records of the patient for two important reasons. First one is that it helps in proper evaluation of the patient and to plan treatment protocol. Second is that the legal system relies mainly on documentary evidence in cases of medical negligence. Since we are entering details of the patients electronically in the” Hospital Records Management System”, data will be secured and shown up precisely. Using this application we can fetch patient’s history or details with a single click. Thus processing information will be faster. It guarantees accurate maintenance of Patient details. It easily reduces the book keeping task and thus reduces the human effort and increases accuracy speed. In Future we would include prediction and Statistical analysis with help of graphical representation. References [1]. Andorson, R. (2001). “Security Engineering, A Guide to Building, Dependable, Distributed System”. New York: Wiley Computer Publishing. [2]. Brennan TA, Leape LL, Laird NM, Hebert L, Localio AR, Lawthers AG.(1991). ”Incidence of adverse events and negligence in hospitalized patients”. Results of the Harvard Medical Practice Study I. N Engl J Med; 324(6):370–6. [3]. Chaudhry, B., Wang, J. and Wu, S. (2006).”Systematic review: impact of health information technology on quality, efficiency, and costs of medical care”, Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 144, No. 10, pp.742–752. [4]. Gans, D., Kralewski, J., Hammons, T. and Dowd, B. (2005) “Medical groups adoption of electronic health records and information systems”, Health Affairs, Vol. 24, No. 5, pp.1323–1333. [5]. Kushniruk, A.W. (2008) Human, Social, and Organizational Aspects of Health Information Systems, IGI Global, Hershey, PA. [6]. Manes, S. (1998). “Time and Technology Threaten Digital Archives.” New York Times, Science Times section, p. F-4. [7]. Michelson, A., and Jeff Rothenberg. (1992). “Exploring the Impact of Changes in the Research Process on Archives.”American Archivist 55(2). [8]. Nguyen, L., Bellucci, E. and Nguyen, L.T. (2014), “Electronic health records implementation: an evaluation of information system impact”. [9]. O’Brien, J. and Marakas, G. (2007) “Introduction to Information Systems”, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill/ Irwin, New York, NY. [10]. Roberts, D. 1994. “Defining Records. Documents and Data.” Archives and Manuscripts 22(2): 14–26. [11]. Singh S, Sinha US, Sharma NK(2005). Preservation of medical records—an essential part of health care delivery. IIJFMT;3(4):1–8. [12]. Santosh, R. F. (June 2009). SECURING A HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEM WITH A GOVERNMENT ISSUED DIGITAL IDENTIFICATION CARD. Porto. [13]. Tiwari, B. and Kumar, A. (2015). “Role-based access control through on-demand classification of electronic health record”, International Journal of Electronic Healthcare, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp.9–24. [14]. Van de Velde, R. (2000). “Framework for a clinical information system”, International Journal of Medical Informatics, Vol. 57, No. 1, pp.57–72. 1 Agency synopsis N Valid Missing Frequencies Statistics Frequency of Satisfied with Ease of using Recommendation of appointment as Ease of access the accuracy mobile apps to the facility’s digital soon needed via of patient of wearable access digital health technologies to telehealth services portal devices health services others 6 6 6 6 6 0 0 0 0 0 Frequency Table Frequency of appointment as soon needed via telehealth services N % Always 1 16.7% Sometimes 2 33.3% Rarely 1 16.7% Never 2 33.3% Ease of access of patient portal N Very easy 2 Moderately easy 1 Difficult 2 Very difficult 1 % 33.3% 16.7% 33.3% 16.7% 2 Satisfied with the accuracy of wearable devices N % Very satisfied 2 33.3% Somewhat satisfied 2 33.3% Very dissatisfied 2 33.3% Ease of using mobile apps to access digital health services N % Very easy 2 33.3% Easy 1 16.7% Somewhat easy 2 33.3% Very difficult 1 16.7% Recommendation of the facility’s digital health technologies to others N % No 1 16.7% Yes 2 33.3% I am not certain 3 50.0% 3 Description and recommendations There were six respondents to a 5-question online survey done about telehealth. A third of the participants reported having never had appointments via telehealth services whenever they needed them. Only 16.7% of the respondents had an appointment whenever they needed vial telehealth. These findings correlate with the reported ease of access to the patient portal. Even though 33.3% of the respondents reported having found it very easy to access the patient portal, those who found patient portal access either difficult or very difficult were 33.3% and 16.7%, respectively. Similarly, 33% of the participants found it very easy to use mobile apps to access digital health services, while 16.7% found it very difficult to use mobile apps. Concerning wearable devices, an equal number of respondents (33%) reported being very satisfied, somewhat satisfied, and very dissatisfied with wearable device accuracy. Overall, there was a relatively high uncertainty about recommending the facility’s digital health technologies to others. Fifty percent of the respondents were uncertain if they could recommend the health technologies, 33.3% could recommend while 16.7% could not recommend them to others. Therefore, the digital technologies used by the facility seem to be challenging to a large number of users. As such, there is less satisfaction with its use. One recommended approach to improve usability is redesigning the user interface and making it easy to use, user-friendly and interactive. Another recommendation is to offer education to the users. Thirdly, a platform to obtain user feedback can be created to help improve digital health technologies based on user needs.

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