HCM500 Week 4 Annotated Bibliography

1 Portfolio Milestone Name Institution Course Instructor Date 2 Portfolio Milestone Bibliography Gonzalez-Nahm, S., Østbye, T., Hoyo, C., Kravitz, R. M., & Benjamin-Neelon, S. E. (2022). Associations Among Food Security, Diet Quality, and Dietary Intake During Pregnancy in a Predominantly African American Group of Women from North Carolina. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 122(3), 565-572. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2021.08.110 Hege, A., Ball, L., Christiana, R. W., Wallace, C., Hubbard, C., Truesdale, D., … & Fleming, H. (2018). Social determinants of health and the effects on quality of life and well-being in 2 rural Appalachia communities: the community members’ perspective and implications for health disparities. Family & community health, 41(4), 244-254. DOI:10.1097/FCH.0000000000000201 Lathrop, B. (2020). Moving toward health equity by addressing social determinants of health. Nursing for Women’s Health, 24(1), 36-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nwh.2019.11.003 Leung, C. W., & Tester, J. M. (2019). The association between food insecurity and diet quality varies by race/ethnicity: an analysis of national health and nutrition examination survey 2011-2014 results. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 119(10), 16761686. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2018.10.011 Petersen, R., Pan, L., & Blanck, H. M. (2019). Peer reviewed: Racial and ethnic disparities in adult obesity in the United States: CDC’s tracking to inform state and local action. Preventing chronic disease, 16. DOI: 10.5888/pcd16.180579 3 Sanjeevi, N., Freeland-Graves, J., & Hersh, M. (2018). Food insecurity, diet quality and body mass index of women participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: The role of intrapersonal, home environment, community, and social factors. Appetite, 125, 109-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.036 Siega-Riz, A. M., Pace, N. D., Butera, N. M., Van Horn, L., Daviglus, M. L., Harnack, L., … & Sotres-Alvarez, D. (2019). How well do US Hispanics adhere to the dietary guidelines for Americans? Results from the Hispanic community health study/study of Latinos. Health equity, 3(1), 319-327. https://doi.org/10.1089/heq.2018.0105 4 Discussion Post Non-urgent emergency room visits are a typical patient behavior in healthcare systems in different healthcare systems globally. This issue is vital since it reduces resource availability for emergencies limiting the recovery probability of emergency cases. The American College of Emergency Physicians details examples of how non-urgent emergency room visits cause insurance challenges. In the fourth video, the American College of Emergency Physicians (n.d.) documented a patient who visited the emergency room for routine care and thus did not receive insurance coverage for her condition. The video indicates that Diamond Tyler suffered from severe cases on occasion, which led her to use the emergency room as the access point to healthcare whenever she displayed symptoms of allergies. Patient education was necessary to inform Tyler of emergency care costs compared to primary care physician healthcare. Furthermore, Tyler was unaware of the advantages of telemedicine in streamlining healthcare. In this view, patient education would enlighten her on how patients utilize telemedicine to avoid visiting the emergency room or the healthcare facilities when there is no need. Educating Tyler on how to employ telemedicine would enable her to refrain from using the emergency room as the first access point to healthcare unless there were an urgent medical need (DuvaSawko, 2020; Poku & Hemingway, 2019). These aspects would allow her to align with the Avoidable Emergency Room Use clause in her father’s insurance policy. Furthermore, educating her on the advantages of developing long-term relationships with primary care physicians would prevent future non-urgent emergency room visits. Developing robust relationships with primary care physicians enables patients to maintain continuous follow-up for acute illnesses, enhancing care delivery and limiting adverse conditions. 5 Tyler’s visit to the emergency room impacted the workflow and costs of healthcare accounting for the insurance coverage challenges. Despite the insurance company’s illegal clauses in their insurance policy, Tyler’s non-urgent emergency room visit necessitated the hospital to utilize more resources requiring heavy reimbursement from the insurance company. While treating other patients, the emergency room physicians attended to her condition affecting the general workflow. Methods to prevent non-urgent emergency room visits include extensive patient education and promoting prompt routine healthcare service to encourage patients (DuvaSawko, 2020; Poku & Hemingway, 2019). Furthermore, promoting the adoption of telemedicine is a practical way to enhance access to prompt medical assistance limiting non-urgent emergency room visits (Poku & Hemingway, 2019). Similarly, limiting insurance coverage to emergency conditions is a vital deterrent to fostering adherence to the proper use of healthcare systems. These approaches are essential in enabling healthcare facilities to limit workflow disruption and additional costs stemming from non-urgent emergency care. 6 References American College of Emergency Physicians (n.d.) New Anthem Policy Cuts Emergency Room Coverage. https://www.acep.org/federal-advocacy/value-of-em/faircoverage/ DuvaSawko. (2020). How can EDs reduce visits for non-urgent conditions? https://www.duvasawko.com/reduce-non-urgent-emergency-room-visits/ Poku, B. A., & Hemingway, P. (2019). Reducing repeat pediatric emergency department attendance for non-urgent care: a systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions. Emergency Medicine Journal, 36(7), 435-442. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2018207536 Annotated Bibliography A bibliography is a list of references for works (books, articles, reports, government documents, etc.) on a specific topic. In an annotated bibliography, each reference is followed by an annotation: 1-2 paragraphs that summarize and evaluate the source. An annotation can help a researcher determine the value of each work on the topic and the contribution it might make to further research. WRITING ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHIES Keep the following tips in mind when constructing Annotated Bibliographies: • • • • • • The purpose of the annotation is to summarize or describe the source, evaluate the source’s credibility and quality, and reflect on the relevance of the source by explaining how it connects to other sources you’ve found and where it fits into your argument overall. When summarizing each source, consider the following characteristics of the work: o Main purpose, idea, or argument o The author’s intended audience o Research methods o Findings and conclusions o Any special features of the work, like maps, illustrations, etc. When evaluating the quality of the source, consider the following: o Credibility of the author: Is the author an expert on this topic? Do they have credentials and experience in this field and on this subject? o Conflict of interest: Does the author have any conflicts of interest that would call the reliability of the findings into question? o Timeliness: How recently was the source published? For example, older works on a rapidly changing and developing topic may be less relevant if their findings are outdated. o Publisher: Is the publisher of the source reputable? Sources published by university presses are generally considered scholarly. When reflecting on the relevance of the source to your topic and project overall, consider the following: o Synthesis: How does this source connect to other sources included in your annotated bibliography? Does this source corroborate or contradict the findings in your other sources? o Purpose: What is the role this source will play in your larger research paper or project? What does this source contribute? How useful is this source? You are expected to evaluate the credibility of each source and its usefulness for understanding your topic and for your research project overall. When needed, use in-text citations in your annotations if you are directly quoting or paraphrasing the source material. When summarizing the source and evaluating its credibility, the use of third person is appropriate. When expressing your own views and discussing the relevance of the source to your own research and argument, the use of first person is appropriate because it avoids ambiguity and confusion in attribution. FORMATTING ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHIES APA outlines specific formatting requirements for annotated bibliographies. • • • • • Include a title page with your annotated bibliography. The title of the paper should be the first line of the page after the title page. The title should be centered and bolded, with major words capitalized. Arrange your references in alphabetical order, like you would for a typical references page. Below each reference entry, include an annotation as a new paragraph. The annotation should be indented half an inch from the left margin. Do not indent the first line of the annotation. If your annotation is more than one paragraph, then indent the first line of the second paragraph an additional half inch. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY EXAMPLE This sample annotated bibliographywill give you an idea of what your bibliography should look like. Social Media and Climate Change: Annotated Bibliography Al-Saqaf, W., & Berglez, P. (2019). How do social media users link different types of extreme events to climate change? A study of Twitter during 2008–2017. Journal of Extreme Events, 6(2), Article 1950002. https://doi.org/10.1142/S2345737619500027 An annotated bibliography is a tool used in the beginning stages of a research project or paper. An annotated bibliography contains a list of references for individual sources that you plan to utilize for your research project. Each reference is followed by an annotation: a short explanation of the source and an evaluation of the source’s credibility and relevance to your larger research project. Writing an annotation provides a clearer understanding of how your sources relate to each other and how each source fits into your larger argument. In each annotation, you should summarize the source’s argument, supporting evidence, and key points; evaluate the credibility and reliability of the source; and reflect on the purpose and usefulness of the source in your research project overall. When summarizing the source and evaluating its credibility, the use of third person is appropriate. When expressing your own views and discussing the relevance of the source to your own research and argument, the use of first person is appropriate because it avoids ambiguity and confusion in attribution. Diehl, T., Huber, B., Gil de Zúñiga, H., & Liu, J. (2019). Social media and beliefs about climate change: A cross-national analysis of news use, political ideology, and trust in science. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, Article edz040. https://doi.org/10.1093/ijpor/edz040 Diehl et al. (2019) argue that social media use is generally correlated with pro-social beliefs: “beliefs that align with the scientific consensus on climate change” (Diehl et al., 2019, p. 2). However, the effect of social media use on pro-social beliefs is influenced by macro-level indicators, like carbon output, individualism, and gross domestic product per capita, as well as micro-level indicators, like political ideology and trust in scientific institutions. For example, in countries with individualist societies and with higher levels of carbon output per capita, survey respondents were more likely to be skeptical about climate change. This source is academic and scholarly in nature, as indicated by the fact that the authors, who are all faculty at universities in different countries, use survey data from 20 different countries to perform a multilevel regression analysis. The text itself was also published by Oxford University Press in the peer-reviewed International Journal of Public Opinion Research. This study is useful for my research because it validates the findings of my other sources and illustrates the complex role of social media alongside culture and politics in forming a personal opinion of climate change. For example, Diehl et al. (2019) and Al-Saqaf and Berlez (2019) show that an individual’s country of residence will shape their views on climate change, but Diehl et al. address cultural and economic factors while AlSaqaf and Berlez focus on exposure to extreme weather events. I will cite this source throughout my research project to support my argument that several psychological and sociological factors play a more influential role in shaping an individual’s views on climate change than the science itself.

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