Columbus Technical College Classification of Bones Worksheet

Classification of Bones

Classify each of the bones below as being either long, short, flat, or irregular. Also classify each bone as belonging to the axial or appendicular skeleton. Bone name Bone shape Axial or Appendicular? Sternum Radius Calcaneus Parietal bone Phalanx Vertebra Bone markings Name the marking that goes along with the description. Give an example of where you would find the marking (the first one is done for you). Gross Anatomy of the Typical Long Bone Match the key terms to their description below and use the terms to label the image below. _____ end portion of a long bone _____ helps reduce friction at joints _____ site of blood cell formation _____ two membranous sites of osteoprogenitor cells _____ scientific term for bone shaft _____ contains yellow marrow in adult bones _____ growth plate remnant _____ composed of adipose tissue and is important in energy storage a. Articular cartilage b. Compact bone c. Diaphysis d. Endosteum e. Epiphyseal line f. Epiphysis g. Medullary cavity h. Nutrient artery i. Perforating (Sharpey’s) fibers j. Periosteum k. Red marrow l. Spongy bone m. Yellow bone marrow Microscopic Structure of Compact Bone Several descriptions of bone structure are given below, identify the structure involved by choosing the appropriate key term from the box below. Then, on the photomicrograph of bone, identify all structures named in the box below and draw a circle around a single osteon. a. b. c. d. e. Canaliculi Central canal Lacuna Lamella Osteon _____ layer of bony matrix around a central canal _____ site of osteocytes _____ longitudinal canal carrying blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves _____ the basic histological unit of compact bone _____ tiny canals connecting osteocytes within an osteon Exercises: 8 & 9 *The names/terms must be spelled correctly 1. Exercise 8: Be able to visually, verbally and in writing locate and/or describe the functions and locations of the following structures when observing a slide, diagram or model of compact bone: Compact Bone:  Central Canal (Haversian system)  Lacunae  Canaliculi  Lamellae  Perforating (sharpey’s fibers)  Osteocytes  Osteocytes in lacunae  Osteon (Haversian system)  Volkmann’s canal /Transverse canal  Periosteum 1. Diaphysis 2. Epiphysis  Epiphyseal Plate/Lines Periosteum Compact Bone 3. Articular Cartilage 4. Nutrient arteries 5. Medullary Cavity 6. Endosteum 7. Location of yellow and red bone marrow  Spongy bone Spongy Bone:  Trabeculae (spicules) 2. Bone Histology: Be prepared to identify visually, verbally, and in writing the following histological tissues: hyaline cartilage, compact and spongy bone. Be prepared to provide examples of where these tissues are found. 3. Be prepared to identify visually, verbally, and in writing for the following: 1. The ‘name’ of the bone  If the bone is comprised of fused bones, know the fused bone’s name and the individual bones that make up the fused bone 2. To which ‘division’ of the ‘skeleton’ it belongs   Axial Appendicular 3. Into which of the ‘categories’ of bone it falls   Flat Long   Short Irregular  Os Coxae: pubic, ischium, ilium bones Femur Tibia 4. If the bone is Left or Right     Clavicle Scapula Humerus Ulna   Exercise 9 & 10: Axial & Appendicular skeleton 1. Be prepared to identify visually, verbally, and in writing all of the bones, bone markings which make up the cranium and face. Skull (Cranium):  Ethmoid (air cells) sinuses  Calvaria (cranial vault)  Superior and middle nasal conchae  Cranial floor (base): anterior, (turbinate) middle, & posterior cranial  Fetal skull/Fontanelles: fossae  Anterior  Posterior Cranial bones: 8 bones  Sphenoidal Frontal: (1)  Mastoid  Supraorbital foramen  Frontal sinuses Sutures:  Glabella  Squamous Parietal (2)  Sagittal Temporal: (2)  Lambdoid  Mastoid process  Coronal (frontal)  External auditory (acoustic) meatus Facial Bones: 14 bones  Zygomatic process Nasal (2)  Mandibular fossa  Styloid process Maxilla: (2)  Petrous portion – Jugular  Maxillary sinus foramen, Carotid canal, Internal  Palatine process auditory (acoustic) meatus  Infraorbital foramen  Anterior nasal spine Occipital: (1)  Alveolar process  Foramen magnum  Occipital condyles Mandible: (1)  External occipital protuberance  Angle  Superior/middle/inferior nuchal  Body lines  Ramus of mandible  Condyle Sphenoid: (1)  Coronoid process  Greater & lesser wings  Mandibular notch  Hypophyseal fossa  Mandibular foramen  Sella turcica  Alveolar process  Sphenoid sinuses  Mental foramen  Optic canal  Superior & Inferior orbital Lacrimal bone (2) fissures  Pterygoid processes (medial & Palatine bone: (2) lateral)  Vomer (1) Ethmoid: (1)  Crista galli  Cribriform plate  Perpendicular plate Inferior nasal conchae (turbinate) (2) Zygomatic bone: (2)  Zygomatic process 2. Hyoid: Be able to identify the structures of the hyoid bone:    Greater horn Lesser horn Body 3. Sternum: Be prepared to visually, verbally, and in writing identify the fused bones of the sternum:         Manubrium Sternal angle Body Xiphisternal joint Xiphoid process Costal cartilage Claviclar notch Jugular notch 4. Ribs: know visually, verbally, and in writing differences between:  True ribs (1-7) – Vertebrosternal ribs  False ribs (8-12) – Vertebrochondral ribs  Floating ribs (11-12) 5. Vertebral Column: Be prepared to identify visually, verbally, and in writing differences between cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. Also, be recall the amount of vertebrae that are classified in each group. Also be able to identify C1 (Atlas) and C2 (Axis) by their specific names and know what they appear like visually. Typical Vertebrae: Thoracic Vertebrae (T1-T12)  Body  Spinous Process  Pedicle  Transverse Process  Lamina  Transverse Costal Facet for Rib  Transverse process  Inferior Costal Facet for Rib  Vertebral foramen  Costal cartilage  Intervertebral foramen Lumbar Vertebrae (L1-L5)  Superior articular process  Superior Articular Processes  Inferior articular process  Inferior Articular Processes  Transverse Process Atypical Vertebrae: C1 – Atlas – Anterior tubercle/Posterior  Spinous Process tubercleC2 – Axis – Dens (Odontoid process) Sacrum (5 fused bones)  Ala Cervical Vertebrae (C1-C7)  Auricle surface  Transverse Foramen  Dorsal and Ventral Sacral Foramina  Vertebral Foramen  Median/Lateral Sacral Crest  Spinous Process  Sacral promontory ala(e)  Dens (odontoid process) of the Axis  Sacral canal  C7 spinous process (vertebral prominence) Coccyx (4 fused bones) 6. Pectoral Girdle, Arm & Forearm: Be prepared to visually, verbally, and in writing identify the pectoral girdle and forearm: Clavicle  Sternal end  Acromial end  Conoid tubercle Scapula  Glenoid Cavity  Acromion process  Coracoid Process  Spine of scapula  Scapula notch  Subscapular fossa  Supraspinous fossa  Infraspinous fossa Humerus  Head of Humerus  Lesser tubercle  Greater tubercle  Neck: anatomical & surgical  Intertubercular/bicipital groove  Deltoid tuberosity  Medial and Lateral Epicondyles  Capitulum – articulates with radius  Trochlea – articulates with ulna  Coronoid fossa  Radial fossa Olecranon fossa Ulna  Olecranon Process  Coronoid Process  Trochlear notch  Ulnar tuberosity  Styloid process  Interosseous membrane  Head Radius  Head  Neck  Radial tuberosity  Styloid process  Ulna notch Metacarpals:  1-5 Phalanges (phalanx): Digits:  Pollex: Proximal, Distal  Proximal, Middle, & Distal (14 each hand) 7. Hand/Carpal Bones: Be prepared to visually, verbally, and in writing identify all of the bones of the hand/Carpal: Proximal row:  Scaphoid  Lunate  Triquetrum  Pisiform (anterior to triquetrum) Distal row:  Trapezium  Trapezoid  Capitate  Hamate 8. Pelvic Girdle, Leg, and Foot: Be prepared to visually, verbally, and in writing identify the following structures: Pelvic Girdle  Iliac Crest  Sacroiliac joint  Iliac fossa  Anterior superior iliac spine  Anterior inferior iliac spine  Posterior superior iliac spine  Posterior inferior iliac spine  Greater sciatic notch  Lesser sciatic notch  Pubic symphysis  Pubic tubercle  Acetabulum  Ischial spine  Ischial Tuberosity  Obturator Foramen Pelves:      Intercondylar fossa Lateral epicondyle medial epicondyle Lateral condyle Medial condyle Patella Tibia  Intercondylar eminence  Lateral condyle  Medial condyle  Tibial Tuberosity  Interosseous membrane  Anterior border  Medial malleolus Fibula  Head of Fibula  Lateral malleolus Be prepared to visually, verbally, and in Foot writing differentiate between a male  Trochlear surface of Talus and  Tuberosity of Calcaneus female pelvis.  Femur Metatarsals:  Fovea capitis  1-5 Phalanges (phalanx):  Head Digits:  Neck  Hallux: Proximal, distal  Greater trochanter  Proximal, middle, distal (14 each foot)  Lesser trochanter  Linea aspera 9. Foot/Tarsal Bones: Be prepared to visually, verbally, and in writing identify all of the bones of the foot: Proximal row: Distal row:  Calcaneus  Medial Cuneiform  Talus  Intermediate Cuneiform Middle row:  Lateral Cuneiform  Navicular  Cuboid

"Get 15% discount on your first 3 orders with us"
Use the following coupon

Order Now