Case OSHA, COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS IN STANDARD SETTING/RCRA, AND ENFORCEMENT AND INTERNATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS IN CHEMICAL REGULATION

Module 4 – Case OSHA, COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS IN STANDARD SETTING/RCRA, AND ENFORCEMENT AND INTERNATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS IN CHEMICAL REGULATION Case Assignment Utilize the module readings and recommended resources to help you address the assignment questions. Support your responses with scholarly sources. Part 1: This Case Assignment explores the OSH Act, including its inception and current state. Please answer the following questions and provide support from the literature: 1. What were the two most important factors leading to passage of the OSH Act? Explain why and justify your choice. 2. What were the positions of labor and industry about the need for federal legislation? 3. Describe three major issues that were debated during passage of the Act. 4. Explain compromises that were reached to assure the legislation would pass. 5. Why are so many of OSHA’s rules out of date? Part 2: This Case Assignment investigates RCRA. 1. Under RCRA, what are defined as the generators of hazardous wastes? 2. Congress is reluctant to meddle in the internal production decisions of private companies. Therefore RCRA does not require minimization of hazardous wastes. Should there be enforceable limits for the generation of hazardous wastes, just as there are limits on the industrial discharge of water pollutants under other rules such as the Clean Water Act? Explain the rationale for your answer and illustrate with support from the literature. Length: Submit a 5- to 6-page paper, excluding the cover page and the reference list. Resources: Required Reading Carruth, R. S., & Goldstein, B. D. (2014). Chapter 7: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). In Environmental health law: An introduction (pp. 157-178). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Wiley. Carruth, R. S., & Goldstein, B. D. (2014). Chapter 9: Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-know Act (EPCRA). In Environmental health law: An introduction (pp. 203-224). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Wiley. Carruth, R. S., & Goldstein, B. D. (2014). Chapter 10: Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act). In Environmental health law: An introduction (pp. 203–224). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Wiley. Carruth, R. S., & Goldstein, B. D. (2014). Chapter 11: Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). In Environmental health law: An introduction (pp. 225–240). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Wiley. Casmere, E., More, J. R., Showalter, J. M., Antoniolli, A., Joshi, B., Loring, D. M., . . . Simpson, A. M. (2015). Recent developments in toxic torts and environmental law. Tort Trial & Insurance Practice Law Journal, 50(2), 639-666. Retrieved from the Trident Online Library. Gonzalez, G. (2016). OSHA targets emergency responders. Business Insurance, 50(6), 1-n/a. Retrieved from the Trident Online Library. Maddux, J. (2016). OSHA standards: Why do they take so long? Professional Safety, 61(5), 43-45. Retrieved from the Trident Online Library Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (2014). OSHA at a glance. Retrieved from https://www.osha.gov/Publications/3439at-a-glance.pdf U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). (n.d). Commonly used statistics. Retrieved from https://www.osha.gov/data/commonstats U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2019a). History of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/rcra/history-resourceconservation-and-recovery-act-rcra U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2019b). Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) overview. Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/rcra/resource-conservationand-recovery-act-rcra-overview Recommended Resources U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). (n.d). About OSHA. Accessed at https://www.osha.gov/aboutosha U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). (n.d). Unified agenda – current agenda. Accessed at https://www.osha.gov/lawsregs/unifiedagenda/currentagenda U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2019). About EPA. Accessed at https://www.epa.gov/aboutepa U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2019). Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) laws and regulations. Accessed at https://www.epa.gov/rcra Module 4 – SLP OSHA, COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS IN STANDARD SETTING/RCRA, AND ENFORCEMENT AND INTERNATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS IN CHEMICAL REGULATION This SLP examines the use of cost-benefit analysis in the standard-setting process as well as how environmental/occupational standards are enforced. For this SLP, answer the following two-part questions in 5–6 pages and support your answers with the literature: Part 1: 1. Describe the cost-benefit analysis that was used in the standard-setting process for the substance you chose for your SLP. 2. Describe how this analysis affected the process of standard setting and the involvement of all stakeholders. 3. Analyze the impact of the cost-benefit analysis in regulating environmental/occupational health and safety for the substance. Part 2: 1. Describe how your selected standard is enforced in industry or the community. 2. Has this standard and its enforcement been beneficial at reducing diseases and injuries related to this substance? 3. Select one aspect of this standard that you believe needs to be updated or changed to improve its effectiveness at reducing associated mortality/morbidity. Resources: Required Reading Resources Relevant to the SLP Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (2017). All workplace safety & health topics. Accessed at https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/ Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (n.d.). Safety and health topics: Alphabetical listings of topics. United States Department of Labor. Accessed at https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/text_index.html U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2019). Chemicals and toxic topics. Accessed at https://www.epa.gov/environmental-topics/chemicals-and-toxicstopics U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2019). Substance registry services. Accessed at https://ofmpub.epa.gov/sor_internet/registry/substreg/LandingPa ge.do Module 4 – Case ETHICAL ISSUES IN EVALUATION RESEARCH Case Assignment Consider the following scenario: “Who is the author?” Ben is a professor of health sciences. He is serving as program chair for a conference with refereed publications. Ben suggests to his graduate student Alyssa that she submit a paper to the conference because, even though he cannot support her trip to the conference (being held abroad), he will be there and can present her paper. Alyssa writes the paper and gives several drafts to Ben, who does not comment on any of them. All the research is original work done by Alyssa while she was funded by an external fellowship. She submits the paper listing herself as the sole author. Alyssa’s paper gets accepted. The conference informs her that she is required to attend to present her paper. Surprised, she asks Ben about this policy, given that he had made no prior mention of it. Ben replies curtly that Alyssa will have to make him a co-author on her paper. Alyssa finds this unreasonable, particularly since Ben did not provide her with any feedback on the submission. Alyssa cannot afford to attend the conference on her own (Dennis & Fisler, 2008). Dennis, J. & Fisler, K. (n.d.) Who is the Author? Retrieved from http://www.cs.rice.edu/~vardi/comp601/case1.html After reading the required background materials for this module and consulting the relevant peer-reviewed literature, please address the following questions in a four-page essay. 1. What (if any) ethical principles have been violated in this scenario? 2. Discuss the possible actions that Alyssa can take. Note the implications, ethical, professional, etc., for each course of action. 3. Now consider Ben’s actions. Were these reasonable? Why or why not? (NOTE: Be sure to reflect upon relevant ethical principles in formulating your response.) Assignment Expectations Length: Assignment should be 4 pages (~1000 words) in length. Resources: Required Reading American Evaluation Association (2018). Guiding Principles for Evaluators. https://www.eval.org/About/Guiding-Principles Unite for Sight (2015). Ethics of Evaluation. Accessed via http://www.uniteforsight.org/evaluation-course/module15 Williams, L.G (2015). Review of Ethics Principles and Guidance in Evaluation Research. Accessed via https://www.oecd.org/dac/evaluation/DFID-Ethics-PrinciplesReport.pdf Optional Reading American Public Health Association (2002). Principles of ethical practice of public health. Retrieved from https://www.apha.org//media/files/pdf/membergroups/ethics/ethics_brochure.ashx Module 4 – SLP ETHICAL ISSUES IN EVALUATION RESEARCH Consult the background materials for this module and the relevant peer-reviewed literature and, after doing so address the following questions in a 3- to 4-page paper: Identify and discuss potential ethical issues where your health/social program is concerned. How might these impact your evaluation? How might these be overcome? Assemble your Module 1-4 SLP components into a single comprehensive final paper that represents your evaluation plan for the health or social program you selected for your SLP. SLP Assignment Expectations Length: This SLP assignment should include all previous module SLP assignments and be between 12-16 pages in length. Resources: Required Reading American Evaluation Association (2018). Guiding Principles for Evaluators. https://www.eval.org/About/Guiding-Principles Unite for Sight (2015). Ethics of Evaluation. Accessed via http://www.uniteforsight.org/evaluation-course/module15 Williams, L.G (2015). Review of Ethics Principles and Guidance in Evaluation Research. Accessed via https://www.oecd.org/dac/evaluation/DFID-Ethics-PrinciplesReport.pdf Optional Reading American Public Health Association (2002). Principles of ethical practice of public health. Retrieved from https://www.apha.org//media/files/pdf/membergroups/ethics/ethics_brochure.ashx Discussion: Reflections on Course Concepts Given the readings and assignments in the course: • • • Identify and briefly discuss two concepts in this course that you believe will be most applicable to the professional discipline you will enter upon completion of your degree program. What is the importance of these concepts to the professional discipline? How will you use these concepts in your future career? Reflection is a mental process that challenges you to use critical thinking to examine the course information, analyze it carefully, make connections with previous knowledge and experience, and draw conclusions based on the resulting ideas. A well-cultivated critical thinker raises vital questions and problems, formulating them clearly and precisely; gathers and assesses relevant information, using abstract ideas to interpret it effectively; comes to well-reasoned conclusions and solutions, testing them against relevant criteria and standards; thinks open-mindedly within alternative systems of thought, recognizing and assessing, as need be, their assumptions, implications, and practical consequences; and communicates effectively with others in figuring out solutions to complex problems. (Paul & Elder, 2008) In order to earn maximum credit, the comment should be more than your opinion, and more than a quick “off the top of your head” response. Be sure to support your statements, cite sources properly, cite within the text of your comments, and list your reference(s). The response must be a minimum of 250 words. Paul, R. & Elder, L. (February 2008). The miniature guide to critical thinking concepts and tools. Foundation for Critical Thinking Press. Discussion: Reflections on Course Concepts Given the readings and assignments in the course: • • • Identify and briefly discuss two concepts in this course that you believe will be most applicable to the professional discipline you will enter upon completion of your degree program. What is the importance of these concepts to the professional discipline? How will you use these concepts in your future career? Reflection is a mental process that challenges you to use critical thinking to examine the course information, analyze it carefully, make connections with previous knowledge and experience, and draw conclusions based on the resulting ideas. A well-cultivated critical thinker raises vital questions and problems, formulating them clearly and precisely; gathers and assesses relevant information, using abstract ideas to interpret it effectively; comes to well-reasoned conclusions and solutions, testing them against relevant criteria and standards; thinks open-mindedly within alternative systems of thought, recognizing and assessing, as need be, their assumptions, implications, and practical consequences; and communicates effectively with others in figuring out solutions to complex problems. (Paul & Elder, 2008) In order to earn maximum credit, the comment should be more than your opinion, and more than a quick “off the top of your head” response. Be sure to support your statements, cite sources properly, cite within the text of your comments, and list your reference(s). The response must be a minimum of 250 words. Paul, R. & Elder, L. (February 2008). The miniature guide to critical thinking concepts and tools. Foundation for Critical Thinking Press

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